El Niño / La Niña
US$ 32 to 96 billion
Estimated global economic losses due to impacts of the 1997–1998 El Niño event.
Third "triple dip" La Niña
In the last 50 years, three consecutive years of La Niña occurred only three times, 1973/1976, 1998/2001 and 2020/2023.
The warmest year on record, because of long-term climate change and the effect of 2023/2024 El Niño episode.
+2.0 °C SST anomaly in Nov 2023 –Jan 2024
was among the five highest 3-month mean SST in the Niño 3.4 region. The strong El Niño of 2015/2016 had +2.6 SST anomaly.
-2.0 °C SST anomaly in Nov 1973 –Jan 1974
was highest negative 3-month mean SST anomaly in the Niño 3.4 region, occurred during the strong La Niña of 1973/1974.
El Niño/La Niña Updates
The WMO El Niño/La Niña Update is prepared approximately every three months through a collaborative effort between WMO and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) as a contribution to the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on Natural Disaster Reduction.